KINGS AND QUEENS OF SCOTLAND
Lists of Scottish Kings normally begin with Kenneth I (Kenneth MacAlpin), who traditionally united the Picts and Scots. However it is now accepted that  Pictavia and Dal Riata (the Scots) had been ruled by the same king on previous occasions. The first king to rule over both realms was ONUIST, son of Uurgust, king of the Picts from c.729 to 761, who conquered Dal Riata and by 736 ruled over both Picts and Scots.  Known in Gaelic as Oengus, son of Fergus and later translated in English to Angus, his authority began to ebb after 750, though whether this involved losing authority over Dal Riata is uncertain. Certainly after his death, the kingdoms separated and a period of instability ensued lasting in Pictavia till 789 and Dal Riata till 811.
Another strong ruler  CONSTANTIN, son of a different Uurgust, became King of the Picts in 789 and in 811 established his rule over Dal Riata where he was recorded as CUSTANTIN, son of Fergus. His father, Uurgust  may have been a son of Ungus. Since he successfully bequeathed his authority to other members of his family which was only broken by a massive defeat by the Vikings, and there was only a short period between that battle and Kenneth Mac Alpin's succession, it seems reasonable to begin the list with Constantine. 
Regnal Numbers: Where, after the Union with England in 1707, the official regnal number disagrees from that which would be correct in counting kings or queens of Scotland, the official number is given in quotation marks, and the number which would be appropriate to Scotland in brackets. Thus William "IV" (III) indicates that the king was known as William IV but was only the third King William to reign in  Scotland. The regnal numbers currently used for some early kings differ from those used by Victorian historians. The Victorian number for the Constantines is shown in brackets, so the king now known as Constantine II but formerly referred to as Constantine III is shown as Constantine II (III).
Dynasties are shown in in different colours as listed at the bottom of the page
Wives and Husbands of Monarchs who bore the title of Queen or King are shown in capitals.
No. MONARCH GENEALOGY DATE OF BIRTH ACCESSION END OF REIGN LENGTH OF REIGN NOTES ON DEATH, DEPOSITION AND ABDICATION MARRIED
  CONSTANTINE (I) son of Uurgust (or Fergus)   811 820 9yrs    
  [Caustantin mac Fergusa]            
  Note:  a strong case has been made that Donald (or Domnall), son of King Constantine and brother of King Angus ruled Dal Riata  as a subordinate king between 811 and 835
  ANGUS (or ONUIST or UNGUS) son of Uurgust (or Fergus)   820 834 14yrs    
  [Oengus mac Fergusa]              
  DREST son of Constantine (I)          
  [Drest mac Caustantin]       late 836 3yrs    
  and     834 or  (approx)    
  TALORCAN son of Uuthoil     early 837      
  Note: Aed, son of Boanta ruled Dal Riata from 835 to 839, subordinate to Uuen from 837 but the relationship between 835 and 837 is unclear
  UUEN son of King Angus (or Onuist)   late 836 or late 839  3yrs killed with his brother, Bran and Aed, son of Boanta, in battle against the vikings  
  [Eoganan mac Oengusa]   early 837 (approx)  
  WRAD (or FERAT) son of Bargoit   c839 c842 c 3yrs    
            (approx)    
  BRED (or BRUDE) son of Wrad (or Ferat)   c842 c842 1mth    
  Note: Some sources record there were three further Kings of the Picts after Bred, son of Wrad, but before Kenneth, son of Alpin; i.e. Kyneth(Kenneth), son of Ferat(c842-843); Brude, son of Fochel(c843-845); Drust, son of Ferat (c845-847). On the other hand, Kenneth, son of Alpin is recorded as being king of Dal Riata for two years before becoming  King of the Picts (c840-842). This indicates that the period 839-847 was either one of confusion and instability or a period of divided rule. 
1 KENNETH I son of Alpin   c842 Feb 858 16 yrs died of a tumour  
  [Cinaed mac Ailpin]         (approx)    
2 DONALD I son of Alpin and brother   858 13 Apr 862 4 yrs    
  [Domnall mac Ailpin]   of Kenneth I            
3 CONSTANTINE I (II) son of Kenneth I   862 877 15 yrs killed in battle against Vikings  
  [Custantin mac Cinaeda]              
4 AED son of Kenneth I   877 878 1 yr killed in battle by Giric  
  [Aed mac Cinaeda]              
5 GIRIC son of Dungal,  who is now generally accepted not to have been Donald I   878 889 11 yrs died or expelled  
  [Giric mac Dungail]            
     and/ or possibly               
  EOCHA son of  Rhun, king of Strathclyde and reputed to have been a grandson of Kenneth I through his mother   878 889 11 yrs expelled  
  [Eocha ap Rhun]            
6 DONALD II son of Constantine I   889 900 11 yrs killed at Dunnottar  
  [Domnall mac Custantin]              
7 CONSTANTINE II (III) son of Aed   900 943 43 yrs abdicated , died 952, aged 74+  
  [Custantin mac Aeda]              
8 MALCOLM I son of Donald II   943 954 11 yrs killed by men of the Mearns,  
  [Mael Coluim mac Domnaill]           aged 54+  
9 INDULF son of Constantine II   954 962 8 yrs killed by Vikings  
  [Illiub mac Custantin]              
10 DUBH son of Malcolm I   early 962 ? 20 July 966 4 yrs 6 mths killed by people of Moray  
  [Dub mac Mael Choluim]         (approx)    
11 CULEN son of Indulf   mid/late 966 early/mid 971 4 yrs 6 mths killed by Britons  
  [Culen mac Illiub]         (approx)    
12 KENNETH II son of Malcolm I   early/mid 971 mid 995 24 yrs 2 mths murdered at Fettercairn a woman of Leinster
  [Cinead mac Mael Choluim]         (approx)    
  Note: There is  a record of Amlaib (Olaf), son of Indulf, King of Scotland, being killed  by Kenneth II in 977. This may indicate a disputed succession or divided rule between 971 and 977.
13 CONSTANTINE III (IV) son of Culen   mid 995 early 997 1 yr 6ths killed in battle by rebels  
  [Custantin mac Culein]       (approx)    
14 KENNETH III son of Dubh   early 997 early 1005 8 yrs killed in battle against the future  
  [Cinead mac Duib]           Malcolm II at Monzievard  
  Note: Some lists show a "Giric" son of Kenneth III reigning between 997 and 1005. This is now generally accepted to be a misreading of the original source documents.
15 MALCOLM II son of Kenneth II c 954 Mar 1005 25 Nov 1034 29 yrs 8mths died aged 80 (or more)  
  [Mael Coluim mac Cinaeda]              
16 DUNCAN I son of Bethoc,daughter c 1001 30 Nov 1034 14 Aug 1040 5 yrs 258dys killed by Macbeth, aged c39 c 1030 Suthen, a cousin of Siward, Earl of Northumbria
  [Donnchad mac Crinain] of Malcolm II          
17 MACBETH son of Findlaec, mormear of Moray. Possibly a grandson of Malcolm II though the evidence is doubtful c1005 Aug/Sep 1040 5 Dec 1057 17 yrs 4mths killed at Essie in battle against the future Malcolm III. However he may have abdicated in December 1057 and been killed in August 1058, aged c53. c1032 GRUOCH, widow of Gillacomgan, mormaer of Moray; and daughter of Bethoc, son of Kenneth III or Kenneth II
  [Mac Bethad mac Findlaech]        
           
18 LULACH son of Gillacomgan, mormaer of Moray; and Gruoch, daughter of Bodhe, son of Kenneth III or Kenneth II c1032  ? 8 Dec 1057 23 Apr 1058 c136dys killed at Dumphanan in battle against the future Malcolm III, aged c25 Finnghuala, daughter of Sinhill. mormaer of Angus
  [Lulach mac Gillai Coemgain]        
             
19 MALCOLM III son of Duncan I c1031 25 Apr 1058 13 Nov 1093 35 yrs 202dys killed in battle against the English at Alnwick, aged c62 1)c1059 INGIBJORG, widow or possibly daughter of Thorfinn. Earl of Orkney
  [Mael Coluim mac        
  Donnchada]           2)c 1068 MARGARET,daughter of Edward Atheling, son of Edward, king of England (d1093)
20 DONALD III son of Duncan I c 1033 Nov 1093 May 1094 0 yrs 6mths deposed by Duncan II    unknown
  [Domnal mac Donnchada]         see below  
21 DUNCAN II son of Malcolm III by Ingibjorg c1060 May 1094 12 Nov 1094 0 yrs 6mths killed by the Mormaer (Earl) of the Mearns, aged c 34 c1090 ETHELREDA (or OCTREDA), daughter of Earl Cospatric of Dunbar
           
  DONALD III son of Duncan I c 1033 Nov 1094 Oct 1097 2 yrs 11mths deposed by Edgar    unknown
     (restored)       (total = died c1099, aged c66  
          3yrs 5mths)    
22 EDGAR son of Malcolm III by Margaret c1074 Oct 1097   8 Jan 1107 9 yrs 3 mths died, unmarried, aged c32      unmarried
               
23 ALEXANDER I  son of Malcolm III by Margaret c1077 Jan 1107 23 Apr 1124 17yrs 3mths died, aged c46, leaving no children c1110 SYBILLA, illegit. daughter of Henry I of England (d1122)
           
24 DAVID I son of Malcolm III by Margaret c1080 Apr/May 1124 24 May 1153 29yrs 1mth died,aged c73 c1113/4 MATILDA, daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland (d c1130/1)
           
25 MALCOLM IV eldest son of Henry, son of David I 20 Mar 1142 27 May 1153   9 Dec 1165 12yrs 196dys died,unmarried, possibly from Paget's disease and bone sarcoma, aged 23      unmarried
             
26 WILLIAM I second son of Henry,son of David I 1143 24 Dec 1165   4 Dec 1214 48yrs 345dys died, possibly of the plague, aged 71 1186 ERMENGARDE, daughter of Richard,vicecomes de Bellemomt (d 1233)
           
27 ALEXANDER II only son of William I 24 Aug 1198   6 Dec 1214   8 Jul 1249 34yrs 214dys died of a fever, aged 50 1) 1221 JOAN, daughter of John of England (d 1234)
             
                2) 1239 MARIE, daughter of Enguerande, baron of Courcy  
28 ALEXANDER III only son of Alexander II 4 Sep 1241 13 Jul 1249 19 Mar 1286 36 yrs 249dys  died from falling from his horse over a cliff at Kinghorn, aged 44 1)1251 MARGARET, daughter of Henry III of England (d1275)
           
              2) 1284 YOLANDE de Dreux, comtesse de Montfort (d c1323)
29 MARGARET only child of Margaret, only daughter of Alexander III. Only surviving descendant of William I 1283   28 Apr 1286 c26Sep1290 4yrs 151 dys died before arriving in Scotland, aged 7      unmarried
        (approx)  
  Note: The status of Margaret is open to question. The oath taken by parliament on 28 April 1296 was to Alexander III's heir, either to Margaret or to a possible posthumous son since Queen Yolande was pregnant. It may therefore be argued that Margaret (the Maid of Norway) did not accede till the failure of the queen's pregnancy in November 1286. It should also be noted that there were only two occasions on record when she was called Queen in Scotland, although England and Norway recognised her as queen. In Scotland she was generally called "our lady".
  Interregnum     c26 Sep 1290 17 Nov 1292      
30 JOHN only surviving son of Devorguilla, daughter of Margaret, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, third and youngest son of Henry, son of David I  c1250 17 Nov 1292 10 Jul 1296 3yrs 236dys forced to abdicate by Edward I of England. c1280 ISABELLA, daughter of John de Warrenne, earl of Surrey
         
          died April 1313, aged c63  
  Interregnum     10 Jul 1296 27 Mar 1306      
31 ROBERT I eldest son of Robert,Earl of Carrick, son of Robert, Lord of Annandale, son of Isabella, second daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, third and youngest son of Henry, son of David I 11 Jul 1274 27 Mar 1306   7 Jun 1329 23yrs 72dys died, possibly of leprosy, aged 54 1)c1295 Isabella, daughter of Donald, Earl of Mar
           
            2) ELIZABETH de Burgh, daughter of Richard,Earl of Ulster (d1327)
32 DAVID II only surviving son of Robert I 5 Mar 1324   7 Jun 1329 22 Feb 1371 41yrs 260dys died suddenly aged 46, leaving no legitimate children 1) 1328 JOANNA, daughter of Edward II of England (d1362)
         
                2) 1366 MARGARET, daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond (divorced 1370, d1375)
33 ROBERT II only child of Marjorie, eldest daughter of Robert I 2 Mar 1316 22 Feb 1371 19 Apr 1390 19yrs 56dys died aged 74  1)c1347 Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Adam Mure
           
              2)c1355 EUPHEMIA, daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross (d1387)
34 ROBERT  III eldest son of Robert II c1337 19 Apr 1390   4 Apr 1406 15yrs 350dys died aged c69 possibly due to refusing to eat after hearing of son's capture by the English c1367 ANABELLA,daughter of Sir John Drummond(d1401)
             
35 JAMES I only surviving son of Robert III 25 Jul 1394   4 Apr 1406 21 Feb 1437 30yrs 323dys murdered by the Earl of Atholl and associates, aged 42 1424 JOAN, daughter of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset (d1445)
           
36 JAMES II only surviving son of   James I 16 Oct 1430 21 Feb 1437   3 Aug 1460 23yrs 164 dys accidentally killed by exploding cannon,aged 29 1449 MARIE,daughter of Arnold, duc de Gueldres (b1433  d1463)
           
37 JAMES III eldest son of James II May 1452   3 Aug 1460 11 Jun 1488 27yrs 313dys murdered by an unidentified man after the Battle of Sauchiburn, aged 36 1469 MARGARET, daughter of Charles I of Brunswick,( b1456 d1486)
           
38 JAMES IV eldest son of James III 17 Mar 1473 11 Jun 1488   9 Sep 1513 25yrs 90dys killed at Battle of Flodden against England, aged 40 1503 MARGARET, daughter of Henry VII of England (b1489 d1541)
             
39 JAMES V only surviving son of   James IV 10 Apr 1512   9 Sep 1513 14 Dec 1542 29yrs 96dys died from dysentry or cholera, aggravated by severe depression, aged 30 1) 1537 MADELEINE, daugter of Francis I of France (b1520 d1537)
         
            2) 1538 MARY, daughter of Claude, duc de Guise (b1515 d1560)
40 MARY I only surviving child of James V 8 Dec 1542 14 Dec 1542 24 Jul 1567 24yrs 222dys forced to abdicate by rebel lords. Executed by Elizabeth I of England 8 Feb 1567, aged 44 1)1559 FRANCIS II of France (b 1544 d1560)
         
            2)1565 HENRY, Lord Darnley, Duke of Albany, son of Matthew, Earl of Lennox (b1545 murdered1567)              
             
41 JAMES VI only child of Mary I 19 Jun 1566 24 Jul 1567 27 Mar 1625 57yrs 246dys died of kidney failure, aged 58 1589 ANNE daughter of Frederick II of Denmark and Norway (b1574 d1619)
             
42 CHARLES I only surviving son of James V1 19 Nov 1600 27 Mar 1625 30 Jan 1649 23yrs 309dys executed by English army, aged 48 1625 HENRIETTA MARIA,  daughter of Henry IV of France (b1609 d1669)
           
43 CHARLES II eldest surviving son of Charles I 29 May 1630 30 Jan 1649   3 Sep 1651 2 yrs 216dys deposed by English army at battle of Worcester see below
           
  Interregnum       3 Sep 1651 14 May 1660      
  CHARLES II '' '' 14 May 1660   6 Feb 1685 24 yrs 268dys died of uraemia and food [mercurial] poisoning, aged 54, leaving no legitimate children 1662 CATHERINE,daughter of John, Duke of Braganza (b1638 d1705)
     (restored)       (total =
          27 yrs 119dys)
44 JAMES VII second surviving son of Charles I 14 Oct 1633   6 Feb 1685   4 Apr 1689 4yrs 57dys deposed by the Estates. 1)1658 Anne,daughter of Edward Hyde (b 1637 d 1671)
          died of a cerebral haemorage 6 Sep 1701, aged 67
            2)1673  MARY, daughter of Alfonso IV, duke of Modena (b1658  d1718)
               
45 MARY II older surviving daughter of James VII. 30 Apr 1662 11 Apr 1689 28 Dec 1694 5yrs 261dys died of smallpox and pneumonia, aged 32, leaving no children 1677 WILLIAM II
           
  Wife of William II          
      and            
  WILLIAM II only son of Mary,elder daughter of Charles I.  4 Nov1650 11 Apr 1689   8 Mar 1702 12yrs331dys died from pleuro-pneumonia following fracture of right collar-bone caused by falling from his horse, aged 51, leaving no children. 1677 MARY II
           
    Husband of Mary II          
46 ANNE younger surviving daughter of James VII 6 Feb 1665   8 Mar 1702   1 Aug 1714 12yrs 146dys died of a cerebral haemorage, aged 49, leaving no children 1683 George, son of Frederick III of Denmark (b1653 d1708)
         
47 GEORGE I eldest son of Sophia, youngest daughter of Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James VI 28 May 1660   1 Aug 1714 11 Jun 1727 12yrs 314dys died of a heart attack, aged 67 1682 Sophia  Dorothea, daughter of George, duke of Luneburg-Celle (divorced 1694) (b1666 d1726)
           
48 GEORGE II only son of George II 30 Oct 1683 11 Jun 1727 25 Oct 1760 33yrs 125dys died of a heart attack, aged 76 1705 CAROLINE, daughter of John, margrave of Brandenburg-Auspach (b1683 d1737)
               
49 GEORGE III eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, elder son of George II 24 May 1738 25 Oct 1760 29 Jan 1820 59yrs 96dys died of old age, aged 81 1761 SOPHIA CHARLOTTE, daughter of Charles, duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b1744 d1818)
           
50 GEORGE IV eldest son of George III 12 Aug 1762 29 Jan 1820 26 Jun 1830 10yrs 148dys died of rupture of stomach blood vessels and alcoholic cirrhosis, aged 67, leaving no legitimate children. 1795 CAROLINE, daughter of Charles, duke of Brunswick  (b1768  d1821)
           
51 WILLIAM "IV" (III) third and eldest surviving son of George III 21 Aug 1765 26 Jun 1830 20 Jun 1837 6yrs 359dys died of pneumonia and alcoholic cirrhosis, aged 71, leaving no legitimate children 1818 ADELAIDE, daughter of George, duke of Saxe-Meiningen (b1792 d1849)
           
52 VICTORIA only child of Edward, duke of Kent and Strathearn, fourth son of George III 24 May 1819 20 Jun 1837 22 Jan 1901 63yrs 216dys died of old age, aged 81 1840 Albert, son of Ernest, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, created Prince Consort 1857 (b1816 d1861) 
           
53 EDWARD ''VII''(I) eldest son of Victoria 9 Nov 1841 22 Jan 1901   6 May 1910 9yrs 104dys died of bronchitis, aged 68 1863 ALEXANDRA, daughter of Charles IX of Brunswick (b1844 d1925)
               
54 GEORGE V eldest son of Edward VII 3 Jun 1865   6 May 1910 20 Jan 1936 25yrs 259dys died of bronchitis, together with morphine and cocaine injected by his doctor Lord Dawson, aged 70 1893 MARY, daughter of Francis, duke of Teck (b1867 d1953)
           
             
55 EDWARD ''VIII''(II) eldest son of George V 23 Jun 1894 20 Jan 1936 11 Dec 1936 0yrs 326dys abdicated voluntarily. 1937 Wallis Warfield, former wife of Ernest Simpson (b1896 d1986)  
            died of throat cancer 28 May 1972, aged 77, leaving no children  
               
56 GEORGE VI second son of George V 14 Dec 1895 11 Dec 1936   6 Feb 1952 15yrs 57dys died of lung cancer, aged 56 1923 ELIZABETH, daughter of Claude, Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (b1900 d2002)
               
57 ELIZABETH ''II'' elder daughter of George VI 21 Apr 1926   6 Feb 1952 present 64yrs +   1948 Philip Mountbatten, son of Prince Andrew of Greece, created Duke of Edinburgh 1948 (b1921    )
               
Dynasties are shown in in different colours as follows:
The House of Fergus or Uurgust (811-834 and 837-839) is in pink
The House of Alpin (The Alpinids) ( c842-878 and 889-1034) is in dark red  
The House of Dunkeld or Crinan (1034-1040 and 1058-1286) is in green
The House of Moray (1040-1058) is in light blue
The House of Norway (1286-1290) is in violet
The House of Baliol (1292-1296) is in olive green
The House of Bruce (1306-1371) is in red
The House of Stewart or Stuart (1371-1694 and 1702-1714) is in blue. Note that the direct senior line ended with Mary I but because she married another member of the House of Stuart by whom she had her son, her descendants were also Stuarts. The spelling change also ocurred about this time probably due to French influence. 
The House of Orange (1689-1702) is in orange
The House of Hanover (1714-1901) is in brown 
The House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1901-1917) is in orange-red
The House of Windsor (1917-present) is in purple, but note that George V belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg -Gotha till 17 July 1917 when he proclaimed that he and his descendants would be known as the House of Windsor. 
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